Peaks›Blog›Invest›How are your returns calculated in the Peaks app?

**When you start investing, you naturally want to make a profit in the long run. In the app, you can see at any time how your investments are doing and how high your profits are. But how are your returns calculated in the Peaks app?**

## On your returns screen

In the app, we show three returns:

- The total return you have made on your average deposit since you started at Peaks
- The average return on your deposit (the total return converted to an annual basis)
- The return you made this year

Because these three returns can be confusing, we'd like to explain how we calculate your return. We do this using two examples: a customer who has been investing with Peaks for six years, and a customer who has been doing so for two years.

But first we'll clear up a possible misunderstanding. Because the way you might be used to calculating returns doesn't quite work with Peaks.

## If only it was that easy

Unfortunately, to calculate your return with Peaks, this calculation isn't sufficient. It would only be applicable if you deposited €3,900 all at once at the beginning of the year. However, at Peaks, this is not how it usually works. You likely contribute throughout the year, such as a fixed amount every month, rounding up your change, and occasionally receiving a financial windfall (like your vacation money). Each deposit you make follows its own development. So, if you want to know what your return is over a specific period, you shouldn't calculate it with your total deposits but with your average deposit.

## Examples to clarify

Let's say you invest €1,000 at the beginning of the year, and on the very last day of the year, you invest another €1,000. Assume you've made a profit of €50. What is your return?

You've earned that €50 with the initial €1,000, resulting in a 5% return. If you were to include the second €1,000 in your calculation, you would end up with a return of only 2.5%. And that doesn't accurately reflect your return over the past year.

In short, you need to consider the 'time' factor in your calculation to arrive at a return percentage that reflects the value development of your investments. One solution is to weigh your deposits. The first €1,000 counts as a full year (365 out of 365 days), and the second €1,000 counts as 0 out of 365 days. If you then divide your €50 profit by the weighted deposits (€1,000 x 365/365 + €1,000 x 0/365) = €50 / €1,000 = 5%.

Once you understand this example, it becomes much easier to grasp the return in the Peaks app. Two more examples to clarify:

### Scenario 1: Someone has been a customer at Peaks for 6 years and has over 40% return

Imagine you started investing with Peaks in early 2018 and invested €1,000 each year in the Adventurous portfolio (the riskiest portfolio). By the beginning of 2023, you would have contributed a total of €6,000.

The balance in the Peaks app by the end of September 2023 is €7,461. Over this entire period, you've made a profit of €1,461 (€7,461 - €6,000 = €1,461).

Deposit date |
Deposit |
Return |
Portfolio value end of year |

January 1, 2018 | €1.000 | -3,80% | €962 |

January 1, 2019 | €1.000 | 26,00% | €2.472 |

January 1, 2020 | €1.000 | 8,10% | €3.753 |

January 1, 2021 | €1.000 | 26,60% | €6.018 |

January 1, 2022 | €1.000 | -18,30% | €5.734 |

January 1, 2023 | € 1.000 | 10,80% | €7.461** |

*Return after deducting Peaks fees, index fund costs, and market spreads.**** Value at the end of September 2023.*

The return displayed by the Peaks app is 43.9%. This can be confusing because €1,461 compared to €7,800 is not 43.9%, right?

Let's follow the previous explanation where we calculate the return concerning your average deposit. To keep the example simple, we assume that the value of €7,461 represents your portfolio value at the end of this year, allowing us to work with whole years. You can calculate the average deposit as follows:

Year |
Deposit |
Weight deposit |
Weighted deposit |

Year 1 | €1.000 | 6/6 year | €1.000 |

Year 2 | €1.000 | 5/6 year | €833 |

Year 3 | €1.000 | 4/6 year | €667 |

Year 4 | €1.000 | 3/6 year | €500 |

Year 5 | €1.000 | 2/6 year | €333 |

Year 6 | €1.000 | 1/6 year | €167 |

Average deposit over this period | €3.500 |

The average deposit over the period of 6 years is €3,500. If we now divide the profit of €1,651 by the average deposit, the return is: €1,461 / €3,500 = 41.7%.

As you can see, the return concerning the average deposit is much higher. It provides a better representation of the return you've had as an investor over this period.

### Scenario 2: Someone has been a customer at Peaks for two years and has less than 1% return

Suppose you began investing with Peaks in early 2022 and invested €1,000 in the Adventurous portfolio. At the start of 2023, you did the same. In this case, you started just before the outbreak of the war in Ukraine, causing a significant drop in stock prices. You experienced a significant loss in the first year.

This year (2023), the stock market has recovered, and you benefit because you added an extra €1,000 at the beginning of the year. As a result, you eventually break even and make a profit of €13 (€2,013 - €2,000).

Deposit date |
Deposit |
Return |
Portfolio value end of year |

January 1, 2022 | €1.000 | -18,30% | €817 |

January 2, 2023 | €1.000 | 10,80% | €2.013 |

What is your return over this period now? Once again, we need to consider your average deposit over this period. It amounts to €1,500 (see the table below). When we divide €13 by €1,500, you arrive at a return of 0.88% over your average deposit during this period.

Year |
Deposit |
Weight deposit |
Weighted deposit |

Year 1 | €1.000 | 2/2 year | €1.000 |

Year 2 | €1.000 | 1/2 year | €500 |

Average deposit over this period | € 1.500 |

## The return that you see in the Peaks app

We've used the two scenarios above to explain how to calculate the return on your investments when you contribute regularly.

The return displayed in the Peaks app is based on a variation of this method and is even more precise. We take into account both the timing of your deposits and the return-on-return effect. This is called the 'Internal Rate of Return' method, also known as money-weighted return, or in simpler terms, the effective return.

Would you like to start investing?

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## Why does the return vary for everyone?

Do you know other people who invest with Peaks, and do they achieve a completely different return than you? That's correct, because all of you deposited at different times. The timing of your deposits matters: the prices of stocks and bonds fluctuate, and this affects the price at which you purchase. So, it's entirely possible that other Peakers purchased investments at a different price than you did. As a result, everyone ends up in a different position after some time.

## Still have questions?

If you want to know more about returns at Peaks, please contact our customer service. We're available on business days from 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM.

*Keep in mind that investing carries risks, and you could potentially lose (a portion of) your investment.*